EUM is a composite framework for understanding individual orientations, organization
culture and how they impact each other. The framework has been inspired by the work of
Clare Graves Levels of Existence theory. It also draws from Indian philosophical thought,
particularly pluralism and context – sensitivity. It has three main elements:
The three elements are used both on standalone basis as also in conjunction with one
The individual’s orientations mapped by EUM-I,
The organization’s identity/culture mapped by EUM-O
the psychological contract between the organization and its members understood
The Existential Universe Mapper framework authored by Ashok Malhotra traces its origin to
a research conducted in early ‘70s on ‘Work Values of Indian Managers’. This research was
conducted through a questionnaire designed by Scott and Susan Myers, based on Clare
Grave’s work on ‘Levels of Existence”.
While the research threw up significant insights into patterns of the Indian manager’s
psyche, it also exposed the limitations of the instrument and the underlying framework.
In the late 1990s. Malhotra picked up the threads of his work on Graves and articulated the
Existential Universe Mapper framework, which has similarities with Graves’s theory but with
Soon after, he designed the EUM – I and EUM-O in quick succession to map the individual
and the organization respectively. These tools have been in use for close to two decades
and address a variety of needs at the individual and collective levels.